Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are a major cause of mortality.
Foods contain four nutrients: carbohydrates , lipids (fats), protein and water.
They are called Macronutrients (macro = large): because the body needs these nutrients in large amounts to function and develop.
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins all contain energy (calories). Fat is the most energy-rich:
Macronutrients calories / gram
Carbohydrates provide most of the energy we use, when we are active. They are the « fuel »of the body.
Lipids also provide energy: but for small activities such as sitting or walking slowly .They also allow absorption of some vitamins present in our foods.
Proteins play two roles: they provide energy, and above all, maintain the proper function of the organism and are very important for growth and development.
Micronutrients: vitamins, minerals, and trace elements are necessary, but in very small quantities.
LIABILITY OF FATS AND CHOLESTEROL
Cholesterol and Triglycerides belong to family of lipids.
Cholesterol has two origins:
- Food (or exogenous), from consumption of foods containing cholesterol
- Synthetized in the body (or endogenous), especially the liver.
We distinguish HDL (or good cholesterol) and LDL (or bad cholesterol).
Triglycerides are fabriqued from sugar and alcohol in excess from food.
Lipids (or fats) are made of fatty acids: classified as saturated or unsaturated
-The Saturated Fatty Acids: Are present in animal fats (butter, fatty meats, pastries)
They are poor quality fats because they increase bad cholesterol or LDL
-The Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA): the leader is the oleic acid found in olive oil and peanut oil.
- The Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) derived from linoleic acid, contained in vegetable oils (peanut, corn, sunflower, soybean)
They lower total cholesterol and decrease bad cholesterol (LDL)
Omega 3 and Omega 6 PUFA are "essential" (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids) because they cannot be synthetized by the body.
They must be provided by food (oily fish, oils) or as dietary supplements.
Animal fat –Vegetable Fat
Cholesterol is an animal fat: found in animal food (meat)
Vegetable fats are excellent for health. Consumption reduces cardio vascular diseases.